Sugar beet leaves now are very widely used for livestock feeding, as an organic fertiliser, and also as a raw material for the production of biogas. Therefore the harvest of the sugar beet tops (including leaves) can be considered as current task for the sugar beet growing system. Modern technologies involve harvest of the tops of sugar beet in two stages: flat basic cut and collecting of the entire green mass at higher altitude and the subsequent cutting of the heads of root crops from the residues. Therefore, topical issues of the sensing of the heads of sugar beet roots arranged in rows, are related to the majority of the sugar beet toppers, cleaners of the sugar beet heads, leaves cutters and, digging up working bodies of some designs. The aim of this study is theoretical determination the optimum design and kinematic parameters of a new sensing mechanism of the sugar beet heads located in the soil on the basis of the theory of interaction of flat passive swath board sensing organ with the sugar beet heads during their topping when located in the soil. In the study there are used methods of creation of mathematical models of functioning of the agricultural machines and their working bodies with the using of main provisions of mathematics, theoretical mechanics, programming and numerical calculations on the PC. In this paper, there is presented a theoretical study of the interaction of passive sensing organ with the head of the sugar beet root when there are located residues of the leaves on a root head spherical surface in the form of short elastic rods. Thus, for such an interaction of the sensing organ and the head of sugar beet root head there is taken into account elastic-damping properties of the sugar beet leaves residues. In the study there was first of all developed a new design of the topper for sugar beet heads with the use of a flat swath board sensing organ, there was developed the equivalent scheme of the interaction of the sensing organ with a fixed sugar beet root head. There was also selected and arranged the axis of coordinates, and determined the active forces and angle parameters. Using the basic law of dynamics there was made up a new system of differential equations and the integration of which has made it possible to find the laws of variation of the speed of movement and of the movement of the flat passive sensing organ on the head of sugar beet root head at the beginning of the contact. After determining the initial values of force and design parameters it is possible to solve them on PC to optimise kinematic and structural parameters of the sensing mechanism.
Sugar beet; harvest; sugar beet leaves; sensing of the heads; theory; equations of motion; the kinematic and design parameters.