Journal of Agricultural Engineering <p>The<strong> Journal of Agricultural Engineering (JAE) </strong>is the official journal of the<a href=""><strong> Italian Society of Agricultural Engineering &nbsp;</strong></a>supported by University of Bologna, Italy. The subject matter covers a complete and interdisciplinary range of research in engineering for agriculture and biosystems.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Journal of Agricultural Engineering 1974-7071 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Optical sensing for stream flow observations: A review <p>Images are revolutionising the way we sense and characterise the environment by offering higher spatial and temporal coverage in ungauged environments at competitive costs. In this review, we illustrate major image-based approaches that have been lately adopted within the hydrological research community. Although many among such methodologies have been developed some decades ago, recent efforts have been devoted to their transition from laboratories to operational outdoor settings. Sample applications of image-based techniques include flow discharge estimation in riverine environments, clogging dynamics in irrigation systems, and flow diagnostics in engineering infrastructures. The potential of such image-based approaches towards fully remote observations is also illustrated through a simple experiment with an unmanned aerial vehicle.</p> Flavia Tauro Andrea Petroselli Salvatore Grimaldi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-27 2018-04-27 49 4 199 206 10.4081/jae.2018.836 The most complex theory of the symmetric impact of the vibrating digging working tool on the sugar beet root <p>When digging sugar beet root out of the soil by using a vibration digging working tools, there occur impact contacts of the working tools and sugar beet roots placed in the soil. Such phenomena are formed mainly in conditions of dry and solid soil. The consequence of this is a significant impact contact tails breaks, chips or damage of the side surfaces of roots, which leads ultimately to a non-return losses on sugar mass. Therefore there is a need to develop the basic provisions of the refined theory of impact interaction of a vibrating digging working tool with the body of the sugar beet root fixed in the soil, and on the basis of the results obtained to justify rational kinematic and structural parameters of advanced vibration digging working tool. Within the research there was used the methods of higher mathematics, theoretical mechanics, programming and numerical calculations on the PC. We have developed a refined theory of impact interaction of digging of the working body of the sugar beet harvester with the body of sugar beet root during vibratory digging of sugar beet roots from the dry and solid soil. On the basis of obtained equations and their numerical solution by PC programme it was possible to define the kinematic and structural parameters of vibration digging working tool that will ensure the conditions not to damage or break the tails of the sugar beet roots during their digging out from the dry and solid soil. We have investigated the so-called symmetric impact of the vibrating digging working body and the body of sugar beet root. As shown by calculations of the obtained theoretical dependencies and confirmed experimental studies, for the range of reduced masses of the vibrating excavating organ 0.8-2.0 kg, the translational velocity 1.3-2.2 m∙s<sup>–1</sup>, the depth in the soil 0.08-0.12 m and the vibration amplitude 0.008-0.024 m for shock interaction, which is most likely in dry and solid soil, the permissible oscillation frequency of scooping coulter is 10.0-18.0 Hz.</p> Volodymyr Bulgakov Hristo Beloev Ivan Holovach Vladimir Kročko Ladislav Nozdrovicky Pavol Findura ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 49 4 207 219 10.4081/jae.2018.795 Assessing theoretical flow velocity profile and resistance in gravel bed rivers by field measurements <p>Previous studies showed that integrating a power velocity profile, deduced applying dimensional analysis and the incomplete self-similarity condition, the flow resistance equation for open channel flow can be obtained. At first, in this paper the relationship between the Γ function of the power velocity profile, the channel slope and the Froude number, which was already empirically introduced in a previous paper, is now theoretically deduced. Then this relationship is calibrated using the field measurements of flow velocity, water depth and bed slope carried out in 101 reaches of gravel bed rivers available by literature. The proposed relationship for estimating Γ function and the theoretical flow resistance equation are also tested by an independent dataset of 104 reaches of some gravel bed rivers (Fiumare) in Calabria region. Finally, the theoretically-based relationship for estimating the Γ function is calibrated by the overall available database (205 reaches). In this way the three coefficients of the theoretically based Γ function are estimated for a wide range of slopes (0.1%-6.19%) and hydraulic conditions (Froude number values ranging from 0.08 to 1.25). In conclusion, the analysis shows that the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor for gravel bed rivers can be accurately estimated by the approach based on a power-velocity profile and the theoretically-based relationship proposed for estimating Γ function. The analysis also points out a performance in estimating mean flow velocity better than that obtained in a previous study carried out by the authors.</p> Vito Ferro Paolo Porto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 49 4 220 227 10.4081/jae.2018.810 Energy consumption and technical-economic analysis of an automatic feeding system for dairy farms: Results from a field test <p>The need to reduce labour demand and the increasing size of herds have led - in the last years - to develop specific automated solutions for feeding animals in dairy farms. Currently there are more than 1250 automatic feeding systems (AFS) used worldwide, but there is a lack of information about both their energy requirements and management costs. The primary aim of the present study was to measure the electric energy consumption of an AFS installed in a dairy farm of Northern Italy under practical conditions. The secondary aim was to calculate, using the classic ASABE approach, the costs for preparing and distributing a total mixed ration (TMR) with the same AFS in comparison with the conventional feeding system (CFS) (tractor + TMR wagon) previously adopted by the farm. The average energy consumption of AFS over the experimental period (two months) was 40.2±2.3 kWh per day, 2.11±0.07 kWh per ton of TMR distributed and 29.6 kWh ∙ cow<sup>–1</sup> per year. Energy consumptions and labour were reduced respectively of 97% and 79% passing from a CFS (tractor + TMR wagon) to an AFS, contributing to reduce the daily cost for feeding TMR up to 33%. These results highlighting that AFS can represent an interesting option to improve competitiveness of dairy farms.</p> Francesco M. Tangorra Aldo Calcante ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-04 2018-07-04 49 4 228 232 10.4081/jae.2018.869 Exploring the performances of a new integrated approach of grey, green and blue infrastructures for combined sewer overflows remediation in high-density urban areas <p>Most sewage collection systems designed between 19<sup>th</sup> and early to mid-20<sup>th</sup> century use single-pipe systems that collect both sewage and urban runoff from streets, roofs and other impervious surfaces. This type of collection system is referred to as a combined sewer system. During storms, the flow capacity of the sewers may be exceeded and the overflow discharged into a receiving water body (RWB) through spillways without any control and remediation. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) may, therefore, produce serious water pollution and flooding problems in downstream RWBs. Methodologies for a rational management of CSOs quantity and quality share many commonalities, and these two aspects should be considered together in order to maximize benefits and promote local distributed actions, especially in high urban density areas where the space availability for the construction of CSO storage tanks is often a limiting factor. In this paper, a novel strategy to control downstream flow propagation of a CSO as well as to improve its quality is tested on a real case study in the area of the metropolitan city of Milan. The approach is based on the combination of grey, green and blue infrastructures and exploits the integrated storage and self-depuration capacities of a firstflush tank, a constructed wetland and a natural stream to obtain admissible flow rates and adequate water quality in the RWB. The results, evaluated through a modelling framework based on simplified equations of water and pollutants dynamics, show excellent performances for the integrated system, both in terms of flow control and pollution mitigation. The pollution, using biological oxygen demand concentration as a proxy of the whole load, was decreased by more than 90% and downstream flooding situations were avoided, despite the spillway was not regulated. Concerning the economic point of view, from a rough estimate of the costs, the system allows reducing the investment of 30 to 50% in respect to the traditional CSO controls based solely on flow detention tanks. The proposed approach, as well as the modelling framework for its effective implementation, appear strongly scalable in different world contexts and aim to fill the gap between urban and rural environments in the management of stormwater and CSOs, promoting the involvement of the water managers, the irrigation-reclamation agencies and regional authorities.</p> Daniele Masseroni Giulia Ercolani Enrico Antonio Chiaradia Marco Maglionico Attilio Toscano Claudio Gandolfi Gian Battista Bischetti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 49 4 233 241 10.4081/jae.2018.873 Drainage flux simulation of green roofs under wet conditions <p>The role of green roofs in reducing drainage fluxes is known, but despite extensive analysis in the literature, methods to predict the hydrologic performance for a given green roof composition are scarce. These methods are useful for the hydraulic design and for planning regulations that impose specific hydrological responses. This research investigates on the prediction of the drainage fluxes produced below a green roof with initial water content equal to its water retention capacity (worst-case scenario). Laboratory tests were performed to analyse the rainfall-drainage relationship for green-roof and single components (growing media and drainage storage layers) under specific rainfall intensities. Two types of largely used drainage/storage layers and growth media were analysed, both singularly and in combination. The experiments consider two rainfall events lasting 10 min with constant intensity. The results indicate that the Curve Number (CN) method (U.S. Soil Conservation Service) with a simple adaptation can be used to reproduce the green-roof hydrologic behaviour under antecedent moisture conditions comparable with those of the experiments. In fact, the water retention capacity, controlling the water-output initiation below the green roof, can be used as threshold variable of a step function, above which the CN method is applicable and below which drainage fluxes are practically null. Through this position, the CN assignment for a composite greenroof can be consistently estimated using the proprieties of the single components (drainage/storage layer and growing medium) and it provides values that are very close to those of waterproof media and quite higher than those suggested in companion researches. Drainage amounts are predicted with a standard error equal to 1.50 mm, which corresponds to 5.7% of the mean value observed. After rain initiation, the steady state condition of the drainage flux has proved to be markedly affected by the growing medium and drainage layer composing the system, which result effective in discriminating the green roof performance.</p> Francesco Bettella Vincenzo D'Agostino Lucia Bortolini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 49 4 242 252 10.4081/jae.2018.838